Eine große Zahl weiterer Publikationen und Studien finden Sie in der InterNICHE-Literatur-Datenbank.

Aktuelle Studien, die auf dem 10. Weltkongress 2017 im Bereich der 3R an Hochschulen vorgestellt wurden, sind unter Theme VI auf zusammengefasst.

Bestand, Entwicklung und Evaluation von Lehrmaterial

Gala S. G. and Crandall M. L. (2018) Global Collaboration to Modernize Advanced Trauma Life Support Training.

BACKGROUND: Each year, thousands of surgeons and other trauma health care providers participate in the American College of Surgeon’s Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) program, which historically has allowed trainees to practice cricothyroidotomy, chest tube insertion, pericardiocentesis, venous cutdown, and diagnostic peritoneal lavage on live dogs, pigs, sheep, and goats. However, more than 99% of ATLS programs in the United States and Canada have now ended animal use, driven primarily by simulation technology advancements.

OBJECTIVE: This review details an international survey of animal versus simulation use in ATLS programs and summarizes the surgical training impact of a novel collaboration between the industry manufacturer of the TraumaMan human simulator, Simulab Corporation (Seattle, Washington), and an animal protection nongovernmental organization (NGO) based in Norfolk, Virginia, to replace animal use in ATLS programs with human simulators.

METHODS: From 2012 through 2017, the NGO e-mailed formal surveys concerning program statistics and animal use practices to ATLS officials in various countries (N = 64). The survey response rate was 87.5% and included pre- and post-comparison surveys relative to the industry-NGO simulation collaboration.

RESULTS: Eighteen ATLS programs (32.1%) initially replied that they use nonanimal training methods, whereas 38 ATLS programs (67.8%) replied that they use animals for surgical skills training and cited financial constraints as the primary barrier to adopting human simulation methods. Through the industry-NGO collaboration, the NGO donated 119 TraumaMan models valued at nearly $3million (USD) to ATLS programs in 22 countries, such that 75% of those ATLS programs surveyed by the NGO now use exclusively nonanimal simulation models.

CONCLUSIONS: The industry-NGO collaboration successfully transformed the surgical skills laboratories of 22 international ATLS programs to replace animal use with nonanimal simulation models that are more anatomically realistic, cost less, and allow trainees to repeat surgical skills until proficiency.

 *cited studies:

Andrew B. Hall, Ramon Riojas, Danny Sharon; Comparison of Self-Efficacy and Its Improvement After Artificial Simulator or Live Animal Model Emergency Procedure Training, Military Medicine, Volume 179, Issue 3, 1 March 2014, Pages 320–323,

Jameel Ali, Anne Sorvari, and Anand Pandya, “Teaching Emergency Surgical Skills for Trauma Resuscitation-Mechanical Simulator versus Animal Model,” ISRN Emergency Medicine, vol. 2012, Article ID 259864, 6 pages, 2012.

Block, E.F.J., Lottenberg, L., Flint, L., Jakobsen, J., Liebnitzky, D. Use of a human patient simulator for the advanced trauma life support course. American SurgeonVolume 68, Issue 7, 2002, Pages 648-651 Link

J Surg Educ. 2018 Sep 20. pii: S1931-7204(18)30448-3. doi: 10.1016/j.jsurg.2018.08.011.


Jukes N. (2017) Alternative tools and approaches for replacement in veterinary education and training

According to the InterNICHE Policy, replacement alternatives in veterinary medical education and training comprise non-animal tools and humane interactions with animals. Non-animal tools include software, virtual reality, models, mannekins and other training devices. Alternative approaches that involve animals include the use of ethically sourced animal cadavers, plastination and other preservation methods, and clinical learning opportunities with animal patients. Together with non-animal tools, they can replace animal experimentation, dissection of purpose-killed animals, and other instrumental animal use. This paper reviews some of the tools and approaches developed by teachers and companies for knowledge and skills acquisition in anatomy, physiology, pharmacology, surgery and other disciplines. It demonstrates the potential for full replacement of harmful animal use by providing case studies from veterinary faculties across the world, with particular emphasis on Canada and the US

ALTEX WC10 Abstract Book, 2017, VI-1-517, S. 160


Smith A. et al. (2017) Norecopa: A toolbox for the 3Rs in action

The media are overflowing with material on animal care and use, much of which has not been specifically selected or peer-reviewed. The availability of so many resources makes it difficult to identify the best material for practising good science and the 3Rs. In addition, recent scientific reviews have revealed poor reproducibility of results from animal testing, indications of weak experimental design, and poor compliance with guidelines for reporting animal studies. If the

situation is to improve, scientists need easy access to the best tools. Norecopa has invested considerable resources in building a website of global 3R resources, coupled to an intelligent search engine. All these are available at one site: The search engine

returns hits from all Norecopa’s resources simultaneously. Filters can be applied to increase the relevance of the results. All searches and filters generate unique URLs, making it easy to document the searches which have been performed.

ALTEX WC10 Abstract Book, 2017, VI-2-280, S. 164, Complete presentation


Dewhurst D. and Ward R. (2017) The Virtual Pharmacology Lab – An online repository of free educational alternatives for practical pharmacology teaching

An online repository of free-to-use (educational Creative Commons license) “alternatives” learning objects (LOs) has been developed to assist university faculty in teaching pharmacology practical class-es that frequently use live animal preparations. The 650+ metadata-tagged LOs were acquired by disaggregating existing multimedia simulations developed by the authors ( and include: data traces from experiments; (HTML) text descriptions;

images, diagrams; video; interactive student tasks; self-assessments. Users browse or use a keyword search facility to find individual LOs each of which has associated descriptive text, a web link (url), the code to embed them into webpages/online content, and a preview (e.g.

image, animation). The granularity of the LOs enables faculty to tailor the content of their teaching materials more readily. Summary website usage statistics will be presented together with examples of teacher-created e-books illustrating how the LOs may be used.

ALTEX WC10 Abstract Book, 2017, VI-4-364, S. 167, Complete Article


Raveendran R. (2017) ExPharm Pro – A computer assisted learning software for undergraduate students

ExPharm Pro is an online software package for simulating animal experiments in pharmacology. It consists of five experiments namely the effect of drugs on frog heart, dog blood pressure-heart rate, frog esophagus and rabbit eye and bioassay of histamine using guinea pig ileum. These experiments are available in two modes namely tutorial and examination modes. The tutorial mode includes detailed instructions. The animal tissue/whole animal along with the equipment set-up is displayed on the screen for testing the drug effects. On application of drugs, the responses appear on the screen in realistic animated sequences. The data obtained by the student can be recorded in a table and a few questions will be displayed for the students to answer. The

data and the answers are stored on the server and managed by an in-built students’ management system. The examination mode displays tasks to be carried out by the student by choosing and doing an appropriate experiment. The answers and the steps carried out will be stored on the server for the teacher to evaluate the same. This software which is widely used in India has many more features and will be demonstrated to the delegates.

ALTEX WC10 Abstract Book, 2017, VI-4-189, S. 167


Elnady, F. A. (2016). The Elnady Technique: An innovative, new method for tissue preservation. ALTEX-Alternatives to animal experimentation, 33(3), 237-242.

At the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, there is an increasing number of students but a limited avail­ability of animal cadavers for dissection, and student exposure to formalin is a known hazard. In order to address these challenges, a new method for tissue preservation was developed, the “Elnady Technique.” This method is a modified form of plastination, where the chemicals used are not patented, are inexpensive and locally available, and the process is performed at room temperature. The produced specimens are realistic, durable, have no offensive odor, and are dry, soft and flexible. They can be used to replace the use of animals killed for teaching basic anatomy, embryology, pathology, parasitology and forensic medicine. They have great potential to support training in clinical skills and surgery, including for clinical examination, endoscopy, surgical sutures, and obstetrics simulation.


Martinsen, S. and N. Jukes (2011): An ethical scoring system for the production and assessment of alternatives in education and training, ALTEX WC8 Abstract Book, III-3-712, S. 219.

weitere: Session III-3: Development of non-animal teaching/training models, ALTEX WC8 Abstract Book, S. 219.

Nick Jukes (2005): Toward a Humane Veterinary Education, Journal of Veterinary Medical Education 32.4., 454-60.

Hocke, Verena (2004): Multimediales Lernprogramm zur Sonografie von Milz, Leber und Pankreas bei gesunden Hunden und Katzen. Ludwig–Maximilians–Universität München, Tierärztliche Fakultät, Dissertation. (online unter uni-mü


Situation des Tierverbrauchs in der Ausbildung

Daneshian, Mardas; Akbarsha, Mohammad A.; Blaauboer, Bas; Caloni, Francesca; Cosson, Pierre; Curren, Rodger; Goldberg, Alan;  Gruber, Franz; Ohl, Frauke; Pfaller, Walter; van der Valk, Jan; Vinardell, Pilar; Zurlo, Joanne; Hartung, Thomas; Leist, Marcel (2011): Workshop report, A framework program for the teaching of alternative methods (replacement, reduction, refinement) to animal experimentation, ALTEX 4/11, S. 341-352,

Schmidt, Astrid; Hohensee, Christiane; Teichgräber, Ute, and André Schmidt (2011): SATIS ethics ranking of universities in Germany regarding animal use in education, ALTEX 3/11, S. 243-244. Der Artikel steht im Altex-Archiv zur Verfügung (NCBI-Eintrag).

Ducceschi, Laura; Green, Nicole and Crystal Miller-Spiegel (2010): Dying to learn: the supply and use of companion animals in U.S. colleges and universities, ALTEX 4/10. Der Artikel steht im Altex-Archiv zur Verfügung.

Juristische Publikationen

Cirsovius, Thomas (2002): Die Verwendung von Tieren zu Lehrzwecken, Historische, verfassungs- und verwaltungsrechtliche Untersuchung, Dissertation, 264 S., Broschiert, ISBN 978-3-7890-7760-9.

Kuthz, Martina (1998): Möglichkeiten und Probleme beim Vollzug tierschutzrechtlicher Bestimmungen, Dissertation.

Rieg, Timo (1997): Rechtliche Aspekte der Verwendung natürlich gestorbener oder eingeschläferter Tiere im Morphologiepraktikum. ALTEX 14, 2/97. Abstrakt, eine Kopie des vollständigen Artikels ist über SATIS erhältlich.


Animalearn (2002): A Cost Comparison Between Animal Dissection and Humane Educational Alternatives. Download auf

HSUS: Dissection vs. Alternatives: A Cost Comparison. Download auf

Pädagogische Vergleichsstudien

Knight, Andrew; Balcombe, Jonathan; De Boo, Jasmijn. Animal Consultants International (2008): Comparative studies of student performance: humane teaching methods demonstrate educational efficacy when compared to harmful animal use in biomedical education.

Greenfield, C.L., Johnson, A.L., Schaefer, D.J. und L.L. Hungerford (1995): Comparison of surgical skills of students trained with models or live animals. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 206(12), 1840-1845.
Vergleich der chirurgischen Fähigkeit von 36 Tiermedizinstudenten des dritten Studienjahres, die entweder an Hunden und Katzen oder an Weichteilgewebemodellen geübt hatten: Die Leistungen beider Gruppen waren gleich.

Morre, D. und C.L. Ralph: A test of effectiveness of courseware in a college biology class. Journal of Educational Technology Systems 12, 1992, 79-84
Bei dieser Studie wurden die Biologiekenntnisse einer Gruppe von 184 Erstsemesterstudenten der Biologie verglichen. Die Hälfte der Gruppe präparierte Tiere, während die andere Computerprogramme verwendete. Die Biologiekenntnisse der Computergruppe waren signifikant höher als die der Präparationsgruppe.

Samsel, R.W., Schmidt, G.A., Hall, J.B.: Cardiovascular physiology teaching: Computer simulations vs. animal demonstrations. Advances in Physiology Education 11, 1994, 36-46.
110 Medizinstudenten, die sowohl mit einem Computerprogramm gearbeitet, als auch an einem Tierversuch mit Hunden teilgenommen hatten, bewerteten die erste Lehrmethode zum Erlernen der Herz-Kreislauf-Physiologie als besser geeignet.

Patronek, G.J., und A. Rauch (2007): Systematic review of comparative studies examining alternatives to the harmful use of animals in biomedical education. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 230(1), 37-43.
Alle in Pubmed auffindbaren Studien zwischen 1996 und 2004 wurden verglichen. Die 17 Studien waren mit Studenten der Veterinärmedizin, Medizin, des Grundstudiums sowie Abiturienten durchgeführt worden. Die Autoren kommen im Vergleich aller Studien zu deren gemeinsamen Aussage, dass Alternativmethoden nicht signifikant unterscheiden von oder sogar bessere Ergebnisse erzielen als konventionelle Methoden.

Internationale Erfolge

Jukes, N., Bhavsar, S., Ward, L. and J. Marchig (2011): Investing in humane education: Provision of alternatives across India, ALTEX WC8 Abstract Book, III-1-509, S. 210.

Elzaabalawy S. I., Abdelbaki M. A., Abdelhakim A. I., Alamir W. M., Elsayed M. O., Eryan M. M., Hameda A. M., Jukes N., Mahdi H. M., Roshdy M. A. and M. A. Shaheen (2011): Alternatives outreach and a new student movement for humane veterinary education and practice in Egypt, ALTEX WC8 Abstract Book, III-2-508, S. 213.

Yushchenk A., Berreville O., Wright N., White L. and E. Sullivan (2011): Elimination of live terminal surgeries in Canadian veterinary practice: The case of the Veterinary Skills Training and Enhancement Program (VSTEP) curriculum change at the Ontario Veterinary College (OVC)ALTEX WC8 Abstract Book, III-2-516, S. 213.

Novosaduk T., Jukes N. and E. Maroueva (2011): Curricular transformation at St Petersburg State Veterinary Academy, ALTEX WC8 Abstract Book, III-2-492, S. 216.

Jukes N., Maroueva E., Leporsky D. and C. Gericke (2011): The use of formal agreements to achieve replacement in education: The experience of Russia and Ukraine, III-2-510, S. 216.

weitere: Session III-2: Innovative training in human and veterinary medicineALTEX WC8 Abstract Book.

Weitere Publikationen mit Fokus Tiere in der Ausbildung

Jonas Fischer (Student für Soziale Arbeit an der Hochschule Fulda) (2012): Die Verbreitung der Tierrechtsidee im Bildungssystem, Referat (veganbrunch Saarbrücken)






Eine Antwort für “Publikationen”

  1. Sehr geehrte Damen und Herren!
    Wir haben in Bolivien auf diesem Gebiet ein riesiges Problem- Universitätsdozenten, Ärzte, Studenten kaufen gestohlene Strassenhunde oder fangen sie gar ein, um sie an der staatlichen oder der katholischen ( ! ) Universität zu Tode zu sezieren … Wie kann so jemand in der Bildung tätig sein oder als Arzt?
    Haben Sie auch spanischsprachiges Material oder hätten Sie Interesse daran, es z.T. von mir übersetzt zu bekommen ( gratis )? Ich bin Berufsübersetzerin und würde Ihre Information gern etwas verbreiten.
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